＃ 125 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In the class discussion after I had finished my presentation,
the apparently simple question that most puzzled my students
was one whose actual complexity hadn’t sunk into me before: ….
＃ 124 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
I recently realized the truth of that discovery again
when I taught a course, on how societies
cope with environmental problems,
to highly motivated undergraduates at my university.
＃ 123 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. since we are persuaded by this theory that making money
is the best way to bring happiness to humankind,
we enthusiastically imitate the theory, striving to transform
ourselves into one-dimensional human beings.
＃ 122 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
When believers in this theory see gloomy news on television,
they should wonder whether the pursuit of profit is a cure-all,
but, instead, they blame all the bad things on market failures.
＃ 121 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
It is precisely because journalists appear to have this power
to reconstruct reality according to their preferences and
biases that they have come under increasing attack
by politicians and critics.
＃ 120 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Therefore, the only events that journalists can count on witnessing
in their entirety are those staged especially for the media,
such as press conferences and interviews.
＃ 119 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. in England the institutions have been developed
from experience rather than theory, although they have often
been explained afterwards by a somewhat artificial and
inappropriate process of reasoning.
＃ 118 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. the very fact that the English political system has grown up
by a continual series of adaptations to existing needs has brought
each part of the system more into harmony with the rest
than is the case in any other government.
＃ 117 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
many donors have rushed into seemingly attractive programmes
without carefully assessing the relative long-term costs
and benefits of all possible uses of their money.
＃ 116 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
The fascination with the Information Technology revolution,
represented by the internet, has made some rich countries
wrongly conclude that making things is so ‘yesterday’
that they should try to live on ideas.
＃ 115 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
As migration has become more common, and the right of women
to pass on their nationality to their children has become
increasingly widely recognized, occurrence of dual or
even multiple nationality is unavoidable.
＃ 114 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Governments were keen to avoid situations in which individuals
had obligations to more than one country,
particularly in cases of war.
For a country of immigrants, such as the USA,
this was particularly important.
＃ 113 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Having tasted the pleasure in mathematics he will not forget it
easily and then there is a good chance that mathematics
will become something for him: a hobby, or a tool of his profession,
or his profession, or a great ambition.
＃ 112 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. if it challenges your curiosity and brings into play your creative
faculties, and if you solve it by your own means, you may experience
the tension and the triumph of discovery.
＃ 111 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Much the same applied in the cities of pre-modern Asia and
the Middle East, where the better-off,
especially those who could afford the large ovens and
the labor of servants to bake their own bread,
preferred to eat at home.
＃ 110 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Its origins were not so much a desire for “fast food” as a means
of providing cooked dishes for the poorer people who lacked
the time and technologies to prepare food
at the places where they slept.
＃ 109 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…., there are strong reasons for suggesting that the more
we have been able to alter the limits of the body,
the greater has been our uncertainty
about what constitutes an individual’s body.
＃ 108 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…., we are also living in an age which has thrown into
radical doubt our knowledge of the consequences
of this control, and of how we should control
our physical selves.
＃ 107 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Life is a difficult business and I have found it hard enough
to make my own a complete and satisfying thing;
I have not been tempted to teach my neighbour
what he should do with his.
＃ 106 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
I have often wondered at the self-confidence of politicians,
reformers and other people like them who are prepared
to force upon their fellows policies that must alter
their manners, habits, and points of view.
＃ 105 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Most countries are committed to the principles of sustainable
development, and the search for co-operation to resolve
global environmental problems has become
central to international diplomacy.
＃ 104 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
This rise to prominence reflects a widespread public concern
that the planet is confronting an ecological crisis
that may threaten the very existence of life.
＃ 103 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Many countries found that tourism became their primary source
of wealth―initially due to the popularity of the package holiday
and, now through the low-cost airlines that have continued
in the same tradition.
＃ 102 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Travel was, and still is, an industry where growth is everything,
where common sense and logic seemingly play no part.
The public eagerly participates by believing that
it is their right to travel the world at very little cost.
＃ 101 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Both see that the individual derives her value from being part of
a larger whole, rather than from being a fundamentally
autonomous figure who must choose as freely as possible.
＃100 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
We actually saw people who had never seen their native language
written down say the words to themselves.
＃99 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Combining European learning with Chinese artistic tradition,
Ricci worked to make his map and his mission attractive
to his Chinese hosts. Ricci, Yee says, “knew his stuff.”
＃98 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Unsurprisingly, those areas that had already been settled
by Europeans are drawn in greatest detail: the coastline of Mexico,
for example, is astonishingly accurate,
while that of the Northeastern seaboard
of North America is much less so.
＃97 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
We can own an animal in that we can take on the responsibility
for its care and welfare.
＃96 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Generally speaking there would be few in the modern western
world who did not accept to some degree the proposition that,
when all else fails, the human being has property
in his or her own body.
＃95 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. people spend three times as much time gesturing when they
think it is particularly important that they get a message across, ….
#94 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
The less polished pictures are not only welcomed as possessing
a special kind of authenticity.
Some may compete with the best, so permissive are the standards
for a memorable, eloquent picture.
＃93 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Although learning to write by hand does seem
to play an important part in reading, no one can say
whether the tool alters the quality of the text itself.
#92 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Now you can take an online challenge to figure out
whether a poem was written by a computer or a human.
Mostly you'll be able to tell, but it's getting harder.
#91 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
I should really be no less impressed by this accord than
if I'd successfully decoded a message from the stars.
#90 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Frightened by the monster that he imagines awaits him
on the last page, he speaks directly to the reader….
#89 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Set up the wrong conditions through constant work
and we can accomplish little.
Set up the right conditions
and there is probably little we can't do.
#88 慶應義塾大学 医学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
An added complication is machine-learning―as machines “learn”
how to act, they may end up behaving in unforeseen ways.
#87 慶應義塾大学 医学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
But the tougher problem, not limited to Kyoto, is getting
convenience stores to rethink the way they operate
so as to reduce food loss.
＃86 慶應義塾大学 医学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Missing one of these arbitrary “deadlines” can mean food is
thrown away, despite the fact that it remains safe to eat.
＃85 慶應義塾大学文学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
They sweetly did what they thought would make the experimenter
happy, however weird it might seem to them.
＃84 慶應義塾大学文学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…., the vividness of imaginary companions, and especially
the vividness of the emotions they generate, led psychologists
in the past to conclude that they indicated
children’s shaky grasp of reality.
＃83 慶應義塾大学文学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Moreover, their descriptions matched the independent descriptions of their parents.
#82 同志社大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
But it’s reasonable to assume that a dog whose owner had suddenly
vanished would keep doing what it’s used to, she added.
＃81 同志社大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
People performed the task no better when the stimuli matched
what they thought of as their learning style.
#80 同志社大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
With only 2 percent of pets covered by insurance,
the cost to owners of overweight pets is likely to be in the billions.
＃79 同志社大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
(He never accepted a free meal or advertising, and)
he required restaurants to be modern and to agree
to open their kitchens for customer inspection
if they wanted to be included in his guide.
＃78 同志社大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Even without those side-effects, though, a bilingual child’s connection to relatives and another culture is a good thing in itself.
＃77 京都府立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
If we are “hard” in order to win our position, we strain the relationship or perhaps lose it altogether.
＃76 京都府立大学 2【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Humans’ invention of zero was crucial for modern mathematics and
science, but we’re not the only species to consider “nothing” a number.
＃75 東京大学 15 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Even in peacetime Afghanistan had been open to outsiders
for only a brief interval, a forgotten period
from the 1960s until the 1970s.
＃74 東京大学 14 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Even a so-called war zone is not necessarily a dangerous place:
seldom is a war as comprehensive as the majority of reports suggests.
＃73 東京大学 13 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In Kabul, visiting television crews invariably asked
to be taken to the worst-hit parts of the city; ….
＃72 東京大学 12 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
We deny ourselves the benefits of solitude because we see
the time it requires as a resource to use more profitably.
＃71 東京大学 11 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Recently, while I was working on my computer during
a train ride from Boston to New York, we passed
through a magnificent snowy landscape. (イ)I wouldn’t
have known this but for the fact that I happened to
look outside on my way to get a coffee.
＃70 東京大学 10 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Loneliness is emotionally and even physically painful,
born from a lack of warmth in early childhood,
when we need it most.
＃69 東京大学 9 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Even when their mental powers don’t quite match or
mirror our own complex thinking, they often contain
the seeds of it ― insight, for instance, which has been
defined as the sudden emergence of a complete solution
without trial-and-error learning.
＃68 東京大学 8 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
This, to my mind, makes it all the more surprising that
many of us have found it hard to swallow the idea that
birds may be bright in ways we can't imagine.
＃67 東京大学 7 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
That’s roughly 30 to 60 live birds per person.
＃66 東京大学 6 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
This philosophy explains their love for a pet that, in many ways,
contradicts what we generally believe a pet should be.
＃65 東京大学 5 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. it was foolish and selfish to raise children in the hope that
they might someday pay back the debt of their existence ….
＃64 東京大学 4 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. while it is true that traveling to the islands requires
a certain commitment of time, the real reason
I stayed away is that there were other places
I wanted to visit.
＃63 東京大学 3 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. while some of these characteristics remained steady
over shorter periods of the participants’ lives, most of them,
with the exception of mood stability, had changed markedly,
sometimes vanishing entirely.
＃62 東京大学 2 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In 2012, an attempt was made to track down that
same pool of participants and, of those found,
174 agreed to take part in the continued research.
＃61 和歌山県立医科大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
To choose to do one project is, in effect, to ensure that I will not
have enough energy to undertake another. The most habitual tasks
will produce quite a large exhaustion. While I do not dwell on
my illness, my disability remains always at the fringes of
＃60 山口大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
I would prefer for Aunt Janet to teach me instead,
but I don’t say anything.
＃59 横浜市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
The app uses targeted ads to help users find
what they want and recommends related products nearby.
When users return to China, they get a recommendation
to buy similar Japanese goods online.
＃58 山形大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Some Japanese see customer service as defined
by rules and customs, rather than
by what the customer actually wants.
＃57 宮崎大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
He picked up a bowl that had been in front of me
for half an hour. I had not really looked at it.
＃56 県立広島大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In the West, there are schedules that tell us what to do and when;
time is an outside force helping us to organize our lives.
＃55 広島市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. teenagers who have frequent family dinners
are more likely to say that their parents know a lot
about what’s going on in their school lives.
＃54 福島県立医科大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. the kinds of conversations children have with their parents
play an important role in establishing memories,
especially those that can be described verbally.
＃53 兵庫県立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Behaviors and manners can become so habitual
that they emerge even when there’s no need for them.
＃52 長崎県立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
If these traits match your personality, identify what you enjoy
doing most and then find a business opportunity that makes
use of your personality, skills, and interests.
＃51 名古屋市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. it is vital not only to ensure that there are enough quality jobs
for all workers, old and young, but also to raise productivity
among older workers ….
＃50 鳥取大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
We were so new to town that we had to look up
the address of the closest library, ….
＃49 富山大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Poor public health conditions mean it’s no surprise that
the residents of Nogales, Sonora, do not live as long as
their northern neighbors.
注：Nogales, Sonora ソノラ州ノガレス（メキシコ合衆国の都市）
＃48 東京農工大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
All of us have biases, even authors; so as critical readers
we must be careful not to let our biases interfere
with our comprehension.
＃47 東京医科歯科大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In the end, the key may be to be mindful of
not over-emphasizing any single meal,
but rather looking at how we eat all day long.
＃46 千葉大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. university students studying mathematics were
just as likely as those studying history to quickly
reject the F and the 2 cards.
＃45 下関市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In other words, entrance standards are very different
from university to university, just as they are in Japan.
＃44 滋賀医科大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Since, for example, tunas swim across large parts of the ocean,
setting aside protected areas that miss much of that broad habitat
will fail to protect them from overfishing.
＃43 島根大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Japan, in other words, has 11 times as many architects
per person as Canada.
＃41 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
You know that when you hear my voice, I’m usually not far behind,
or that when a ball rolls behind a sofa it still exists,
but think for a moment how you came by this certainty.
＃40 高知大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Perhaps this is why one reaction to our global world seems
to be an increased attachment to traditional ethnic customs.
＃39 香川大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
What often looks like a lack of willpower
is actually the result of a poor environment.
＃38 神戸市外国語大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Conversely, what if the world’s scientific community
were to model itself after our political elite?
＃37 大分大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Chimpanzees and other apes do not point for one another at all,
and, I will argue, they do not use any other means of
communication to helpfully inform one another of things either.
＃36 愛知県立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Arriving carefully at 9:55 a.m. for my 10:00 a.m. appointment,
I practiced my rusty French nervously in my head.
＃35 岩手大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Happiness is about being able to make the most of
the good times—but also to deal effectively with the inevitable
bad times, in order to experience the best possible life.
＃34 旭川医科大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
That was one child every week, almost all of whom we could have
cured if we had had more and better resources and staff.
＃33 奈良教育大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Despite these advances, however, the literal “hands-on” experience
of the physician will remain critical.
＃32 北九州市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
At the moment there are too many robots that can entertain
and not enough that can meet real needs in the labor market.
＃31 中央大学法学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
In a world where the workings of the global economy are entirely
unaffected by the sufferings of any individual caught up in them,
it is natural to understand that community and belonging are
the only lasting sources of value.
＃30 京都府立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
To see whether these abilities extended to understanding zero,
researchers trained 10 bees to identify the smaller of two numbers.
＃29 福岡女子大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
The big differences between animals alive now—between beetles
and elephants, for example—originated in tiny insignificant splits
of this sort, many millions of years ago.
＃28 愛媛大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. every two days now the human race creates as much
information as we did from the dawn of civilization until 2003.
＃27 静岡大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
No other animal has a brain that can do
what is necessary for human language.
＃26 宇都宮大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. the concept of people viewing beauty differently
from their own points of view has been around
in most cultures of the world since ancient times.
＃25 山梨大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
That is the same as if you believe that your forgotten memory
has been destroyed over time; you will not even try to recall it.
＃24 群馬大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
But there are fewer and fewer skeptics today,
and while debates over whether animals have emotions
still occur, the question of real importance is becoming
why animal emotions have evolved the way they have.
＃23 茨城大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Chocolate was so little known in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries that English and Dutch sailors
once threw the precious cargo on a Spanish ship into the sea,
thinking the cocoa beans were sheep’s droppings.
＃22 長崎大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
While some people feel sad that loved ones have passed away,
others believe that the separation is only temporary
and that they will soon meet again in heaven.
＃21 熊本大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
The first objects that can reliably be called art date
from this era, as does the first clear evidence
for religion, commerce and social order.
＃20 大阪府立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
When things are happening quickly all around us, delays that
would otherwise seem brief begin to seem endless.
＃19 大阪市立大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
As living, breathing humans, our survival depends on
our biological requirements – sleeping, eating, moving –
being met. But these aren’t the only things
essential to our existence.
＃18 奈良女子大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
And because they are compact and economical in expression,
they are a stimulating yet efficient medium for language learning.
＃17 日本女子大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Although this ability allows us to learn, reason, and plan,
it may have a negative effect on our sense of well-being.
＃16 お茶の水女子大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. only when you can instantly recall what you understand,
and practice using your remembered understanding,
do you achieve mastery.
＃15 神戸大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…. common species may need protection
just as much as rare ones do.
＃14 東京学芸大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
Paradoxical as it may seem, recognizing this linguistic diversity
will help a divided country approach the ideal of its motto….
＃13 千葉大学 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
…., it often took the smell of burning flesh or her husband
identifying blood for her to notice something wrong.
＃12 同志社大学 全学部 【解答例・解説の動画はここをクリック】
If people had lived closer to their farmland, they would have been
forced to travel to get clay to build their homes.
That may sound surprising, given that the honeybee brain
contains only 1 million neurons to our brains’ 85 billion, ….
While no one knows why we sleep,
it is a universal biological necessity;
no animal with a brain can survive without it.
Social isolation is a major and growing problem
for the elderly, as a result of higher life expectancy
in old age, lower number of offspring,
and changes in their patterns of living.
What used to seem fixed and definite is being modified
by changes in society and social relations.
What we hold to be true is constantly open to being tested,
which makes the truths that pass the test more reliable.
Once cooking allowed us to expand our cognitive capacity
at the expense of our digestive capacity,
there was no going back.
Perhaps the most defining feature of deep friendship
is “doing for,” as when my friend has my back
in a combat situation, or brings me soup or medicine
when I’m sick. Only strong bonds,
built through embodied mutual activities,
have the power to motivate real sacrifices.
But it is unclear why online “friends”
would bother to do the hard work of friendship.
But our expressions are less a mirror of
what’s going on inside than a signal
we’re sending about
what we want to happen next.
Related to the plastic waste problem
is one that shocks visitors from countries
where food shortages and starvation
remain issues: Japan’s huge volume
of wasted food, ….
The assumption that the world's drylands
are worthless and deforested landscapes
has led, since the colonial period,
to programs and policies that have often
systematically damaged dryland environments
and marginalized large numbers of indigenous
peoples, many of whom had been using
the land sustainably.
Time is a powerful force, he says,
and one that perpetually revises our values,
personalities, and preferences in everything
from music and the places
we would like to go to friendship.